Synergistic Effect of Thymoquinone And Nystatin in The Treatment of Oral Candidiasis; an in Vitro Study

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The effectiveness of antifungal agents may be insufficient against resistant strains in some cases of oral candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of thymoquinone against Candidaalbicans, Candidatropicalis, Candidaglabrata and Candidakrusei strains and the synergistic antifungal activity of these strains in combination with nystatin. To evaluate in vitro antifungal activity and interactions between thymoquinone and nystatin, substances were tested against Candidaalbicans ATCC 10,231, C.tropicalis ATCC 750, C.krusei ATCC 6258 and C.glabrata ATCC 2001 standard strains both individually and combinationally via microdilution method. MIC and sigma FIC index value were analysed. The Kruskal Wallis test and Bonferroni test were used for statistical evaluations. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. A statistically significant difference was observed between the mean ranks of all Candida species and doses of thymoquinone, nystatin, and the combination thymoquinone-nystatin (p < 0.05). MIC values for thymoquinone were determined as 15 mu g/mL for C.albicans, C.tropicalis and C.krusei while it was 30 mu g/mL for C.glabrata. Moreover, MIC for nystatin was found as 1.875 mu g/mL for C.albicans, C.tropicalis and C.krusei, whereas it was 7.5 mu g/mL in C. glabrata. Interaction assays and sigma FIC index value revealed that, TQ and nystatin have a synergistic effect against to all strains. Thymoquinone was found to have antifungal activity on Candida species and synergistic effect when combined with nystatin.


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Thymoquinone, Candida, Antifungal drugs, Synergistic efect, Oral candidiasis


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