Association between polymorphisms in HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and DQ genes from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients and cagL among cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains: The first study in a Turkish population

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Colonization of the human gastric mucosa by H. pylori may cause peptic and duodenal ulcers (DUs), gastric lymphomas, and gastric cancers. The cagL gene is a component of cag T4SS and is involved in cagA translocation into host. An association between the risk of gastric cancer and the type of HLA class II (DR and/or DQ) was suggested in different populations. The aim of this study was to investigate, the clinical association of the cagL gene with host HLA alleles in H. pylori strains that were isolated from patients with gastric cancer, DU, and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) and to determine the HLA allele that confers susceptibility or resistance for the risk of gastric cancer and DU development in Turkish patients. A total of 94 patients (44 gastric cancer and 50 DU patients; 58 male, 36 female; mean age, 49.6 years), and 86 individuals (50 NUD patients and 36 persons with normal gastrointestinal system [NGIS]; 30 male, 56 female; mean age, 47.3 years) were included as the patient and the control groups, respectively. CagA and cagL were determined by PCR method. DNA from peripheral blood samples was obtained by EZ-DNA extraction kit. For HLA SSO typing, LIFECODES SSO Typing kits (HLA-A, HLA-B HLA-C, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1/B1 kits) were used. The CagL/CagA positivity distribution in the groups were as follows: 42 (95.4%) gastric cancer, 46 (92%) DU and, 34 (68%) NUD and no NGIS cases. The HLA-DQA1*01 (OR: 3.82) allele was significantly different, suggesting that these individuals with H. pylori strains harbouring the CagL/CagA positivity are susceptible to the risk of gastric cancer and DU, and the HLA-DQA1*05 (OR, 0.318) allele was suggested as a protective allele for the risk of gastric cancer and DU using univariate analyses. HLA-DQA1*01 (OR, 2.21), HLA-DQB1*06 (OR, 2.67), sex (male, OR, 2.27), and CagL/CagA/(< 2) EPIYA C repeats (OR, 5.72) were detected independent risk factors that increased the risk of gastric cancer and DU using multivariate analyses. However, the HLA-DRB1*04 (OR, 0.28) allele was shown to be a protective allele, which decreased the risk of gastric cancer and DU. Gastric pathologies result from an interaction between bacterial virulence factors, host epigenetic and environmental factors, and H. pylori strain heterogeneity, such as genotypic variation among strains and variations in H. pylori populations within an individual host.


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H. pylori, CagL, HLA, CagA, gastric cancer, duodenal ulcer


Infection Genetics And Evolution

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