Systolic Blood Pressure to Diastolic Blood Pressure Ratios in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients: Deviation from Golden Ratio

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Adis Int Ltd

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Introduction Cardiovascular measures like, systolic to diastolic time intervals on ECG recordings, end-diastolic to end-systolic diameters of the left ventricle on echocardiography, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic measures have gained an interest in terms of Golden ratio or Golden proportions. Ratio of SBP to DBP as a reflection of GR has been recently evaluated in patients who have undergone ABPM to assess the presence of hypertension. Aim To assess and compare the ratios of SBP to DBP as a reflection of GR in 24 h ABPM recordings in patients with and without DM who were not on medical treatment. Methods Six hundred and thirty two patients who underwent ABPM were retrospectively screened and enrolled in the study population in between October 2020 and March 2021. After exclusion of 378 who did not meet the inclusion criteria, 254 patients were enrolled in statistical analysis. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure measurements were also averaged for the day and the night spans according to the patients' reported time of waking up and going to bed. The ABPM was programmed to measure blood pressure every 45 min during both the day time and night time periods Results Among those 254 patients included in statistical analysis, 212 patients were classified as non-diabetic and 42 patients as diabetic. SBP/DBP ratios were significantly higher in diabetics compared to those of non-diabetics in all time spans (1.698 vs 1.631, p = 0.041 for 24 h; 1.689 vs 1.618 p = 0.032 for day-time; 1.74 vs 1.66 p = 0.037 for night time). In non-diabetic patients interestingly day time SBP/DBP gave almost the same value of GR i.e 1.618, likewise the 24 h value of SBP/DBP gave the value of 1.631 which was so close to GR. On the other hand SBP/DBP ratios for all time spans were deviated far from the 1.618 in diabetic patients Conclusion We have shown that systolic to diastolic blood pressure ratios of patients with DM are significantly higher than those without DM. These differences are mainly to due to the lower DBP of diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Beyond these differences SBP/DBP ratio of non-diabetic patients has shown close proximity to 1.618 known as golden ratio.


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Golden ratio, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Blood pressure


High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention

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