Influence of Process Parameters on the Shape Recovery Properties of 4D-Printed Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

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Four-dimensional (4D) printing technology allows printed parts to further alter their shapes or functions in response to external stimulus. 4D printing has been suggested for several potential applications in a range of industries, such as smart actuators, soft robotics, biomedical, and electronics. Shape memory polymers (SMP), which have the ability to change shape when heated, are programmable and deformable materials that are particularly well-suited for 4D printing. This study investigated the effect of 4D printing process parameters on the percentage of shape recovery. The selection of the appropriate process parameters is crucial to the success of 4D printing. Despite the large number of studies on the use of SMP, there is currently insufficient information on the relationship between the process parameters of the 4D printing process. The shape memory effect of the samples was examined by adjusting the sample thickness, nozzle temperature, deformation temperature, and holding time to achieve maximum percentage recovery for polylactic acid (PLA) using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array. ANOVA was used to examine the impact of the process parameters taken into consideration. The results of the experiment showed that the sample thickness had the greatest influence. According to the results, the shape recovery percentage of the printed structures was enhanced by increasing the deformation temperature, holding temperature, and nozzle temperature while increasing the total thickness of the sample had a negative impact on shape recovery. A regression model on the recovery percentage against the process parameters is developed. This study has the feature of being a reference for future 4D printing studies.


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4D printing, ANOVA, process optimization, shape recovery, Taguchi


Journal Of Materials Engineering And Performance

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