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  • Öğe
    Models of Diagnosis and Concept in the Pioneering Architects in Recent Architecture
    (Konya Technical University, 2022) Öymen Gür, Şengül; Yaşar, Dilek
    Architectural sphere evolved into a different direction within the last three decades due to both the development of digital tools and the economic boom, accompanied by the discourses suggesting that radical changes were underway in design and production. In the context thereof, the present study aimed to understand, what today's leading architects considered design input, what factors led them to form, and the conceptual nature of the association they established between form and content. The available texts inked by the renowned architects on their public buildings built between 1990-2020 were accessed via their own web sites and publications. Those briefs were reviewed using textual analysis based on issue and concept notions, remaining loyal to the intra-text context. The conceptual information was then transformed into conceptual categories. The architects were selected among the renowned architects, where the Google Hits method was used to determine the status of being renowned. Accordingly, a total 1146 architectural briefs by 66 renowned architects on their public buildings were analyzed with an aim to transparently see, what was defined as a problem by the designer and by which concepts the designer sought solutions to identified problems. The approaches of recent architects suggested that the architectural discipline maintained its ancient design paradigms, including the quest for function, surroundings, and form, but the way those parameters were addressed and questioned was changed. Furthermore, the spatial configuration-oriented, ecology-oriented, and city-oriented concepts came to the fore, while metaphor and analogy were frequently used. The present study was limited to the own briefs of the renowned architects on public buildings designed between 1990-2020. Unlike the previous studies in the relevant literature, which focused on recent architectural approaches, the present study addressed the subject based on the architects' own texts. Thus, the architect's expression but not the author's interpretation comes to the fore, contributing in the objectivity of the study.
  • Öğe
    Using Z Boson Events to Study Parton-Medium Interactions in Pb-Pb Collisions
    (2022) Gürpınar Güler, Emine; vd.
    The spectra measurements of charged hadrons produced in the shower of a parton originating in the same hard scattering with a leptonically decaying Z boson are reported in lead-lead nuclei (Pb-Pb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Both Pb-Pb and pp data sets are recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.7 nb?1 and 320 pb?1, respectively. Hadronic collision data with one reconstructed Z boson candidate with the transverse momentum pT > 30 GeV=c are analyzed. The Z boson constrains the initial energy and direction of the associated parton. In heavy ion events, azimuthal angular distributions of charged hadrons with respect to the direction of a Z boson are sensitive to modifications of the in-medium parton shower and medium response. compared to reference data from pp interactions, the results for central Pb-Pb collisions indicate a modification of the angular correlations. The measurements of the fragmentation functions and pT spectra of charged particles in Z boson events, which are sensitive to medium modifications of the parton shower longitudinal structure, are also reported. Significant modifications in central Pb-Pb events compared to the pp reference data are also found for these observables.
  • Öğe
    Timing and Spectral Analysis of 2S 1417-624 During its 2018 Outburst
    (Oxford University Press, 2022) Şahiner, Şeyda; vd.
    We investigate timing and spectral characteristics of the transient X-ray pulsar 2S 1417?624 during its 2018 outburst with NICER follow up observations. We describe the spectra with high-energy cut-off and partial covering fraction absorption (PCFA) model and present flux-dependent spectral changes of the source during the 2018 outburst. Utilizing the correlation-mode switching of the spectral model parameters, we confirm the previously reported sub-critical to critical regime transitions and we argue that secondary transition from the gas-dominated to the radiation pressure-dominated disc do not lead us to significant spectral changes below 12 keV. Using the existing accretion theories, we model the spin frequency evolution of 2S 1417?624 and investigate the noise processes of a transient X-ray pulsar for the first time using both polynomial and luminosity-dependent models for the spin frequency evolution. For the first model, the power density spectrum of the torque fluctuations indicate that the source exhibits red noise component ( ? ?2) within the time-scales of outburst duration which is typical for disc-fed systems. On the other hand, the noise spectrum tends to be white on longer time-scales with high timing noise level that indicates an ongoing accretion process in between outburst episodes. For the second model, most of the red noise component is eliminated and the noise spectrum is found to be consistent with a white noise structure observed in wind-fed systems.
  • Öğe
    Time-Windowed Vehicle Routing Problem: Tabu Search Algorithm Approach
    (EDICIONES UNIV SALAMANCA, 2022) Demir, Hasibe Berfu; Pekel Özmen, Ebru; Esnaf, Sakir
    Vehicle routing problem (VRP); it is defined as the problem of planning the best distribution or collection routes of the vehicles assigned to serve the scattered centers from one or more warehouses in order to meet the demands of the customers. Vehicle routing problem has been a kind of problem in which various studies have been done in recent years. Many vehicle routing problems include scheduling visits to customers who are available during certain time windows. These problems are known as vehicle routing problems with time windows (VRPTWs). In this study, a tabu search optimization is proposed for the solution of time window vehicle routing problem (VRPTWs). The results were compared with the current situation and the results were interpreted.
  • Öğe
    Time Series Forecasting With Volatility Activation Function
    Time series forecasting is the method of predicting future values of a model by reviewing its past data. Various models like traditional approaches, statistical methods, moving average, ARIMA, RNN’s, or XGBoost may also be applied. Activation functions are the primary most important hyper parameters or artificial neural networks that decide whether a neuron will be active or not. However, the most widely used sigmoid and ReLU activation functions include the problems of linearity, gradient protection, vanishing gradient and data convergence. Solution of these problems is significant for the development of activation functions which are one of the most important hyper parameters for artificial neural networks. A new activation function is suggested to generate a solution for the problems existing in the activation functions within the scope of this study. A hybrid model has been created from the RNN and LSTM algorithms and applied on different time series data in order to implement this suggested activation function called as the volatility activation function. The volatility activation function has been compared with the literature studies, the conditions for being a function have been proved and its applicability has been demonstrated by means of financial instrument and electrical transformer temperature data. As a result of the study, the characteristics of the volatility activation function have been presented; additionally its applicability, validity and proof has been performed. Furthermore, it has been proved that the problems found in the activation functions used in the literature are not existing in the volatility activation function. It has been verified that the volatility activation function is functional on time series. To demonstrate the feasibility of the volatility activation function, it has been applied to three different time series problems. As a result of the study conducted on the electrical transformer temperature estimation, MSE = 0.362 and MAE = 0.448 were obtained; namely these results are similar to the literature studies. In the test results with ounce gold data, the accuracy rate increased by 0,1. In the test results with Australian rain forecast data, the accuracy rate increased by 0,2. As a result, a new activation function is suggested for the deep learning.
  • Öğe
    The Challenge of Unprecedented Floods and Droughts in Risk Management
    (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022) Çavuş, Yonca; vd.
    Risk management has reduced vulnerability to foods and droughts globally1,2, yet their impacts are still increasing3. An improved understanding of the causes of changing impacts is therefore needed, but has been hampered by a lack of empirical data4,5. On the basis of a global dataset of 45?pairs of events that occurred within the same area, we show that risk management generally reduces the impacts of foods and droughts but faces difculties in reducing the impacts of unprecedented events of a magnitude not previously experienced. If the second event was much more hazardous than the frst, its impact was almost always higher. This is because management was not designed to deal with such extreme events: for example, they exceeded the design levels of levees and reservoirs. In two success stories, the impact of the second, more hazardous, event was lower, as a result of improved risk management governance and high investment in integrated management. The observed difculty of managing unprecedented events is alarming, given that more extreme hydrological events are projected owing to climate change3. .
  • Öğe
    Spatiotemporal Analysis of Drought by CHIRPS Precipitation Estimates
    (SPRINGER WIEN, 2022) Çavuş, Yonca; vd.
    Drought is one of the most devastating natural hazards causing considerable losses in all climatic zones of the world. It is one of the most complex and the least understood hazards at the same time because of its spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable character. Spatially dense and uniformly distributed ground-based meteorological data are needed for proper spatial and temporal drought analysis. In practice, such data are lacking in general due either to the nonexistence of ground stations or their uneven and scarce distribution over a region. This creates a great potential in the use of satellite precipitation estimates (SPEs) such as the long-period high-resolution Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data in drought analysis. In this study, we aim to analyze drought over the Kucuk Menderes River Basin in the western part of Turkey by using the CHIRPS data, which were found highly correlated with precipitation in the local ground stations. The analysis was performed by considering the spatial variability and temporal change in the drought characterization based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculated at the 3-month (seasonal) timescale. Drought in the river basin was found to have a within-year variability from month to month, and a spatial variability over the basin in any given month. Also, an over-year variability with a decreasing trend exists, which could be considered a signal for more strengthened droughts in the future. The study eventually demonstrates how the CHIRPS SPEs could be useful in the spatial and temporal drought analysis for regions with limited ground-based meteorological data.
  • Öğe
    Search for Strongly Interacting Massive Particles Generating Trackless Jets in Proton–Proton Collisions at ?s = 13 TeV
    (Eur. Phys. J. C, 2022) Gürpınar Güler, Emine
    A search for dark matter in the form of strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) using the CMS detec tor at the LHC is presented. The SIMPs would be produced in pairs that manifest themselves as pairs of jets without tracks. The energy fraction of jets carried by charged parti cles is used as a key discriminator to suppress efficiently the large multijet background, and the remaining background is estimated directly from data. The search is performed using proton–proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 16.1 fb?1, collected with the CMS detector in 2016. No significant excess of events is observed above the expected background. For the simplified dark matter model under consideration, SIMPs with masses up to 100 GeV are excluded and further sensitivity is explored towards higher masses.
  • Öğe
    Search for Low-mass Dilepton Resonances in Higgs Boson Decays to Four-Lepton Final States in Proton–Proton Collisions at ?s = 13 TeV
    (Eur. Phys. J. C, 2022) Gürpınar Güler, Emine
    A search for low-mass dilepton resonances in Higgs boson decays is conducted in the four-lepton final state. The decay is assumed to proceed via a pair of beyond the stan dard model particles, or one such particle and a Z boson. The search uses proton–proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC, corresponding to an inte grated luminosity of 137 fb?1, at a center-of-mass energy ?s = 13 TeV. No significant deviation from the standard model expectation is observed. Upper limits at 95% confi dence level are set on model-independent Higgs boson decay branching fractions. Additionally, limits on dark photon and axion-like particle production, based on two specific models, are reported.
  • Öğe
    Revisiting Major Dry Periods by Rolling Time Series Analysis for Human-Water Relevance in Drought
    (SPRINGER, 2022) Çavuş, Yonca; Stahl, Kerstin; Aksoy, Hafzullah
    Drought is increasingly gaining importance for society, humans, and the environment. It is analyzed commonly by the use of available hydroclimatic or hydrologic data with little in depth consideration of specifc major dry periods experienced over a region. Also, it is not a common practice to assess the probability of drought categories with a rolling time series and hence the changing knowledge for operational drought monitoring. A combination of such quantitative analysis with a comprehensive qualitative assessment of drought as a human-water relation aimed to fll this gap performing a case study in the Seyhan River Basin, Turkey. Six major dry periods were identifed from the precipitation time series of 19 meteorological stations. Major dry periods were analyzed by rolling time series and full time series, and they were also analyzed individually. A major dry period could be impor tant in terms of its duration while another in terms of its severity or intensity, and each with its own impact on the human-water relations that can be infuential on the drought mitigation, management and governance. Signifcantly higher probabilities were calculated for extreme droughts with the use of individual major dry periods. An important outcome from the study is that drought is underestimated in practice with the sole use of the whole data record.
  • Öğe
    Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Feature Selection-Based Machine Learning Algorithms
    Background. The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a machine learning model for the early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes to allow for treatments to be applied in the early stages of the disease. Material and methods. A proposed hybrid machine learning model was developed and applied to the Early-stage diabetes risk prediction dataset from the UCI database. The prediction success of the proposed model was compared with other machine learning models. Pearson’s correlation and SelectKBest feature selection methods were employed to examine the relationships between the dataset input parameters and the results. Results. Of the 520 patients included in the dataset, 320 were diagnosed with diabetes and 328 (63.08%) were males. The most commonly observed diabetes diagnosis criterion was obesity (n=482, 83.08%). While the strongest feature detected with Pearson’s correlation was polyuria, the strongest feature detected with SelectKBest was polydipsia. With Pearson’s feature extraction, the most successful machine learning method was the proposed hybrid method, with an accuracy of 97.28%. Using SelectKBest feature selection, the same model was able to predict type 2 diabetes with accuracy of 95.16%. Conclusions. Early detection of type 2 diabetes will allow for a prompter and more effective treatment of the patient. Thus, use of the proposed model may help to improve the quality of patient care and lower the number of deaths caused by this disease.
  • Öğe
    Polymeric Approach to Adjuvant System in Antibody Production against Leishmaniasis Based on Hybridoma Technology
    Background: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease, which is one of the serious public health problems in the world. Nowadays, antibody production using hybridoma technology may be a correct approach in terms of sensitivity in the diagnosis of dis eases such as leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was investigation of the effective ness of different adjuvants on polyclonal antibody production against L. tropica based on hybridoma technique. Methods: Accordingly, Freund's adjuvant (1956, M. tuberculosis), as a classic adjuvant in studies, was used comparatively with the non-toxic polymeric based Polyoxidoni um adjuvant. All animal immunization procedures were conducted at Bezm-i Alem University Experimental Animal Research Center. The adjuvant response was tested both in the serum sample and in the antibodies produced by the hybridomas. The antibody titers were determined with ELISA. Results: Freund’s and Polyoxidonium (PO) group blood titer’s increased approxi mately 5.5 fold compared to control after the 6th and 8 th immunization. Hybridomas produced from mice immunized with PO adjuvant induced only antigen-specific antibody response and did not develop an immune response against the adjuvant. Conclusion: Adjuvant selection is very important in terms of the specificity of anti body responses of cells produced in hybridoma technology. Therefore, PO is rec ommended as a new adjuvant system in this study
  • Öğe
    Observation of B-s(0) Mesons and Measurement of the B-s(0)/B+ Vield Ratio in PbPb Collisions at Root S-NN=5.02 TeV
    (ELSEVIER, 2022) Gürpınar Güler, Emine
    The B0 s and B+ production yields are measured in PbPb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 1.7 nb?1. The mesons are reconstructed in the exclusive decay channels B0 s ? J/?(?+??)?(K+K?) and B+ ? J/?(?+??)K+, in the transverse momentum range 7–50 GeV/c and absolute rapidity 0–2.4. The B0 s meson is observed with a statistical significance in excess of five standard deviations for the first time in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The measurements are performed as functions of the transverse momentum of the B mesons and of the PbPb collision centrality. The ratio of production yields of B0 s and B+ is measured and compared to theoretical models that include quark recombination effects
  • Öğe
    Measurements of the Associated Production of a W Boson and a Charm Quark in Proton-Proton Collisions at ?s = 8 TeV
    (Eur. Phys. J. C, 2022) Gürpınar Güler, Emine
    Measurements of the associated production of a W boson and a charm (c) quark in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV are reported. The anal ysis uses a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb?1 collected by the CMS detector at the LHC. The W bosons are identified through their leptonic decays to an electron or a muon, and a neutrino. Charm quark jets are selected using distinctive signatures of charm hadron decays. The product of the cross section and branching frac tion ? (pp ? W + c + X)B(W ? ?), where = e or ?, and the cross section ratio ? (pp ? W+ + ¯c + X)/? (pp ? W? + c + X) are measured in a fiducial volume and differ entially as functions of the pseudorapidity and of the trans verse momentum of the lepton from the W boson decay. The results are compared with theoretical predictions. The impact of these measurements on the determination of the strange quark distribution is assessed.
  • Öğe
    Measurement of W±? Differential Cross Sections in Proton-Proton Collisions at s =13 TeV and Effective Field Theory Constraints
    (American Physical Society, 2022) Gürpınar Güler, Emine
    Differential cross section measurements of W ? production in proton-proton collisions at ffiffi s p ¼ 13 TeV are presented. The data set used in this study was collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in 2016–2018 with an integrated luminosity of 138 fb?1. Candidate events containing an electron or muon, a photon, and missing transverse momentum are selected. The measurements are compared with standard model predictions computed at next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-leading orders in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Constraints on the presence of TeV-scale new physics affecting the WW? vertex are determined within an effective field theory framework, focusing on the O3W operator. A simultaneous measurement of the photon transverse momentum and the azimuthal angle of the charged lepton in a special reference frame is performed. This two-dimensional approach provides up to a factor of ten more sensitivity to the interference between the standard model and the O3W contribution than using the transverse momentum alone.
  • Öğe
    Investigation the Effects of Different Social Media Platforms to Companies' Sales Marketing Processes by Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method
    (INST SUPERIOR ENTRE DOURO & VOUGA, 2022) Yücenur, Ganimet Nilay; Kaan Bozyel; Ahmetoglu, Asli
    Social media has become a rapidly expanding mass media tool. Today, people spend most of their time on social media and shop here with the developing technology. There are companies that analyze annual social media data and determine the sales and marketing policy by taking these figures into consideration, and arrange their ads accordingly. At this point, this study was conducted with some purposes such as companies should use social media correctly and decide on which social media platform is suitable for their product/service and how to introduce themselves to their customers. In this study, four different social media platforms were evaluated with multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods, the social media platform that gave the best result in the ranking was determined and with this way, it was tried to guide the companies that use social media platforms in sales and marketing activities. A multi-criteria model and two-step solution methodology were proposed within the scope of the study for the evaluation of social media platforms. In proposed methodology, the importance weights of criteria were determined by the SWARA method, while the ARAS method was used to evaluate each alternative social media platform. After all calculations, YouTube alternative was found to be more preferable than other alternative social media platforms for digital marketing with the highest utility degree.
  • Öğe
    Interaction of Fermionic Matter and ECSK Black Hole Leading to Bouncing Universe
    (Springer, 2022) Dil, Emre
    The interactions between spin of fermionic matter and torsion in Einstein–Cartan–Sciama–Kibble (ECSK) theory of gravity provide a repulsive gravitational potential at very dense states of fermionic matter, which prevents the formation of black hole singularities inside the deeper horizon. While the fermionic matter in the black hole is attracted by the black hole at the beginning, after a critical point it is repelled to bounce at a critical high density and then expand into other side of the horizon as a newly created space, which may be considered as a non-singular, closed universe. We constructed the action of these fermions in a black hole with torsion in the framework of ECSK theory of gravity from which the free Dirac action is inferred and the interaction potential is obtained. Also, this scenario naturally solves the flatness and horizon problems of cosmology without introducing finely tuned scalar fields, or more complicated functions of the Ricci scalar R in gravitational action.
  • Öğe
    Genetic Landscape of a Large Cohort of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: New Genes and Pathways and Implications for Personalized Medicine
    (ELSEVIER, 2022) Fındıklı, Necati; vd.
    Background Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), a public health problem, affects 1-3.7% of women under 40 yield ing infertility and a shorter lifespan. Most causes are unknown. Recently, genetic causes were identified, mostly in single families. We studied an unprecedented large cohort of POI to unravel its molecular pathophysiology. Methods 375 patients with 70 families were studied using targeted (88 genes) or whole exome sequencing with pathogenic/likely-pathogenic variant selection. Mitomycin-induced chromosome breakages were studied in patients’ lymphocytes if necessary. Findings A high-yield of 29.3% supports a clinical genetic diagnosis of POI. In addition, we found strong evidence of pathogenicity for nine genes not previously related to a Mendelian phenotype or POI: ELAVL2, NLRP11, CENPE, SPATA33, CCDC150, CCDC185, including DNA repair genes: C17orf53(HROB), HELQ, SWI5 yielding high chromo somal fragility. We confirmed the causal role of BRCA2, FANCM, BNC1, ERCC6, MSH4, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, ESR2, CAV1, SPIDR, RCBTB1 and ATG7 previously reported in isolated patients/families. In 8.5% of cases, POI is the only symptom of a multi-organ genetic disease. New pathways were identified: NF-kB, post-translational regulation, and mitophagy (mitochondrial autophagy), providing future therapeutic targets. Three new genes have been shown to affect the age of natural menopause supporting a genetic link. Interpretation We have developed high-performance genetic diagnostic of POI, dissecting the molecular pathogene sis of POI and enabling personalized medicine to i) prevent/cure comorbidities for tumour/cancer susceptibility genes that could affect life-expectancy (37.4% of cases), or for genetically-revealed syndromic POI (8.5% of cases), ii) predict residual ovarian reserve (60.5% of cases). Genetic diagnosis could help to identify patients who may benefit from the promising in vitro activation-IVA technique in the near future, greatly improving its success in treating infertility. Funding Universit e Paris Saclay, Agence Nationale de Biom edecine.
  • Öğe
    First Search for Exclusive Diphoton Production at High Mass with Tagged Protons in Proton-Proton Collisions at root s=13 TeV
    (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2022) Gürpınar Güler, Emine; vd.
    A search for exclusive two-photon production via photon exchange in proton-proton collisions, pp ? p??p with intact protons, is presented. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb?1 collected in 2016 using the CMS and TOTEM detectors at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at the LHC. Events are selected with a diphoton invariant mass above 350 GeV and with both protons intact in the final state, to reduce backgrounds from strong interactions. The events of interest are those where the invariant mass and rapidity calculated from the momentum losses of the forward-moving protons match the mass and rapidity of the central, two-photon system. No events are found that satisfy this condition. Interpreting this result in an effective dimension-8 extension of the standard model, the first limits are set on the two anomalous four-photon coupling parameters. If the other parameter is constrained to its standard model value, the limits at 95% confidence level are |?j| < 2.9 × 10?13 GeV?4 and |?2| < 6.0 × 10?13 GeV?4
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    Exosome Structures Supported by Machine Learning Can Be Used as a Promising Diagnostic Tool
    (MDPI, 2022) Cansever Mutlu, Esra; vd.
    Principal component analysis (PCA) as a machine-learning technique could serve in dis ease diagnosis and prognosis by evaluating the dynamic morphological features of exosomes via Cryo-TEM-imaging. This hypothesis was investigated after the crude isolation of similarly featured exosomes derived from the extracellular vehicles (EVs) of immature dendritic cells (IDCs) JAWSII. It is possible to identify functional molecular groups by FTIR, but the unique physical and morpho logical characteristics of exosomes can only be revealed by specialized imaging techniques such as cryo-TEM. On the other hand, PCA has the ability to examine the morphological features of each of these IDC-derived exosomes by considering software parameters such as various membrane projections and differences in Gaussians, Hessian, hue, and class to assess the 3D orientation, shape, size, and brightness of the isolated IDC-derived exosome structures. In addition, Brownian motions from nanoparticle tracking analysis of EV IDC-derived exosomes were also compared with EV IDC-derived exosome images collected by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulphate-Polyacrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to sepa rate the protein content of the crude isolates showing that no considerable protein contamination occurred during the crude isolation technique of IDC-derived-exosomes. This is an important finding because no additional purification of these exosomes is required, making PCA analysis both valuable and novel.