Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal Joint Scale

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SAGE Publications Ltd

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Background: The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal (AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP) scale is one of the most widely used outcome measures to evaluate hallux pathologies. This study aimed to translate the AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP scale into Turkish and investigate its psychometric properties. Methods: The psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP (AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP-T) scale were tested in 66 patients with hallux pathologies (52 women; mean age, 47.64 ± 12.75 years). Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to estimate test-retest. Construct validity was analyzed with the Turkish version of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey(SF-12). Results: The AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP-T scale had adequate internal consistency (? = 0.71) and test-retest reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.93 for pain, ICC2,1 = 0.97 for function, and ICC2,1 = 0.97 for total score). The AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP-T total score has a moderate to strong correlation with VAS-activity and MOXFQ (? = ?0.77, P =.001; ? = ?0.69, P =.001, respectively). The weakest correlation was found between the AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP-T and the SF-12 mental component scale (? = 0.31, P =.01). Conclusion: AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP-T has sufficient reliability and validity to evaluate Turkish-speaking individuals with a variety of forefoot pathologies including the hallux. Levels of Evidence: Level II © 2023 The Author(s).


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AOFAS, big toe, foot, forefoot, great toe, hallux, pain, psychometrics, Turkish


Foot and Ankle Specialist

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