Clinical and biochemical evaluation of oral irrigation in patients with peri-implant mucositis: a randomized clinical trial

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Springer Heidelberg

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Objective This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the efficacy of an oral irrigator and an interdental brush in patients with peri-implant mucositis clinically and biochemically at different time points (at baseline and at the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks). Materials and methods Forty-five patients with at least one implant with peri-implant mucositis were included in the present study (n = 45). The patients were divided into three groups: oral irrigator + toothbrush (OI group, n = 15), interdental brush + toothbrush (IB group, n = 15), and toothbrush only (control) (C group, n = 15). The modified plaque index (mPlI), modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment level (PAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and at the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks. The levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were also determined in the peri-implant crevicular fluid samples biochemically. Results The mSBI and t-PA at the 2nd week (p = 0.003; p = 0.003); the mPlI, mSBI, BOP, t-PA, and PAI-1 at the 4th week (p < 0.05; p < 0.001; p < 0.001; p = 0.015; p = 0.011); and the mPlI, mSBI, IL-1 beta, t-PA, and PAI-1 at the 12th week (p < 0.05; p < 0.001; p = 0.013; p < 0.001; p = 0.002) were significantly lower in the OI group compared with those in the C group. Meanwhile, PAI-1 at the 2nd week, mSBI at the 4th week, and t-PA at the 12th week were significantly lower in the OI group compared with those in the IB group (p < 0.001; p = 0.011; p = 0.003). At the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks, all other parameters were not statistically different in the three groups. Conclusion The clinical indexes (such as mSBI and BOP) that play an important role in the diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis showed the lowest means (although limited) in the OI group at all evaluation time points. Moreover, when the clinical and biochemistry results were interpreted altogether, it became apparent that the OI group exhibited similar or more effective results than the IB group in resolving peri-implant mucositis. In light of the foregoing, this study concluded that the use of an oral irrigator can be as effective as an interdental brush in interdental cleaning.


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Dental implant, Oral irrigator, Interdental brush, Peri-implant mucositis, Peri-implant crevicular fluid


Clinical Oral Investigations

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