Is Production or Consumption the Determiner? Sources of Turkey’s CO2 Emissions between 1990-2015 and Policy Implications

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Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi

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Turkey’s CO2 emissions have been steadily increasing since the 1990s. Determining influences of socioeconomic factors behind thisincrease can help identify which sectors and what types of policies should be prioritized to go into action. This paper identifies themain contributors to CO2 emissions change within five-year intervals during 1990-2015 by adopting the Structural DecompositionAnalysis (SDA) method. The results show that CO2 emissions increase was driven by per capita expenditure and population factors,while emission coefficient factor had a reducing effect on emissions. As the production side factors fell pretty behind theconsumption side factors, net emissions were positive and the actual determiner in CO2 emissions was found as consumption. Themost contributing sectors were Electricity, Land Transportation and Mineral. Speeding up renewable energy investments andcontinuing energy efficiency measures, placing a carbon tax on electricity and oil consumption, promoting public transport and useof clean fuels and vehicles, slowing down construction and raising consumer awareness to change their consumption behavior,particularly to reduce demand for high emitting products and services should be the top priority policies.


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Supply-use table, Structural decomposition analysis, CO2 emission, INDC, Turkey


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Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 2021, 39(3), 359-378